The study of biodiversity through geological time provides important information for the understanding of diversity patterns at the present day. Hitherto, much effort has been paid to studying the mass extinctions of the Phanerozoic but the research emphasis has now changed to focus on what occurred between these spectacular catastrophic events. After the Cambrian 'explosion' of marine organisms with readily preservable skeletons, there have been two intervals when life radiated dramatically - the Ordovician Period, and the mid-Mesozoic-Cenozoic eras. These intervals saw a fundamental reoganization of biodiversity on a hierarchy of biogeographical scales. The size of these diversity increases and their probable causes are topics of intense debate, and there is an intriguing link between the dispersal of continents, changing climates and the proliferation of life.Palaeobiogeography and Biodiversity Change: the Ordovician and Mesozoic-Cenozoic Radiations illustrates many aspects of the two great episodes of biotic radiation and shows how long periods of time and plate tectonic movements have a fundamental influence on the generation and maintenance of major extant biodiversity patterns.
Contents: Palaeobiogeography and the Ordovician and Mesozoic-Cenozoic biotic radiations • Brachiopods:Cambrian - Tremadoc precursors to Ordovician radiation events • Early Ordovician rhynchonelliformean brachiopod biodiversity: comparing some platforms, margins and intra-oceanic sites around the Iapetus Ocean • Diversification and biogeography of bivalves during the Ordovician Period • Phylogeny of the Reedocalymeninae (Trilobita): Implications for Early Ordovician Biogeography of Gondwana • The spatial and temporal diversification of Early Palaeozoic vertebrates • Euconodont diversity changes in a cooling and closing Iapetus Ocean • The role of pyroclastic volcanism in Ordovician diversification • The early evolution and palaeobiogeography of Mesozoic planktonic foraminifera • Opening of the Hispanic Corridor and Early Jurassic bivalve biodiversity • Cretaceous patterns of floristic change in the Antarctic Peninsula • Cenozoic palaeogeography and the rise of modern biodiversity patterns • Palaeontological databases for palaeobiogeography, palaeoecology and biodiversity: a question of scale • Integrating the present and past records of climate, biodiversity and biogeography: implications for palaeoecology and palaeoclimatology.
This volume fulfills a long-standing need of vertebrate paleontologists - whether amateurs attending their first excavation or preparators and curators - for a book that describes and explains modern paleontological techniques and practice. The authors of this volume are all exceptional technicians in their field and the book covers everything from field specimen collecting, through conservation methods, chemical preparation, molding, casting and painting, and mounting of vertebrate skeletons, to the final chapter devoted to the use of CT scans and X-ray methods. The book stems from the fact that, up until now, most preparatory techniques and skills have been passed down by example and demonstration, but they have rarely ever been standardized and set down in print. This book attempts to do this, and aims to enlighten workers on the most modern and successful methods that can be used in preserving and studying our fossil heritage.Fulfills the long standing need for paleontological techniques and skills to be standardised and written down.Contributors are exceptional technicians in their fields.Covers CT scans and Xray methods.
ContentsForeword John R. Horner; Preface; Acknowledgments; Introduction Patrick Leiggi and Peter May; 1. Conservation of vertebrate paleontology collections Sally Y. Shelton; 2. An evaluation of adhesives and consolidants recommended for fossil vertebrates Sally Y. Shelton and Dan S. Chaney; 3. Collecting taphonomic data from vertebrate localities Raymond R. Rogers; 4. Macrovertebrate collecting Patrick Leiggi, Charles R. Schaff, Peter May, Frederick Grady and Darren Tanke; 5. Microvertebrate collecting: large-scale wet sieving for fossil microvertebrates in the field Malcolm C. McKenna, Ann R. Bleefield and James S. Mellett; 6. Laboratory preparation Peter May, Peter Reser, Patrick Leiggi, William W. Amaral, Kathy Anderson, Judy Davids, Terry Hodoroff and Betty Quinn; 7. Chemical preparation techniques Ivy S. Rutzky, Walter B. Elvers, John G. Maisey and Alexander W. A. Kellner; 8. Heavy liquids: their use and methods in paleontology Russell McCarty and John Congleton; 9. Histological techniques James W. Wilson; 10. Molding, casting, painting Mark B. Goodwin, Dan S. Chaney, Michael Tiffany and Brian Iwama; 11. Mounting of fossil vertebrate skeletons Kenneth Carpenter, James H. Madsen and Arnold Lewis; 12. Methods and use of CT-scan and X-ray Sandy Clark, Ian Morrison and Jorg Harbersetzer; Index.
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